文章摘要
耿 娴.科学方法与中国的现代性启蒙——以梁启超、鲁迅若干科学论文为考察对象[J].博猫游戏研究,2018,13(2):76~83
科学方法与中国的现代性启蒙——以梁启超、鲁迅若干科学论文为考察对象
On Scientific Method and Enlightenment of Modernity:An Analysis of Science Articles by Liang Qichao and Lu Xun
  
DOI:
中文关键词: 内籀之术 外籀之术 梁启超 鲁迅 国民性改造
英文关键词: induction  deductive  Liang Qichao  Lu Xun  national character’s remolding
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耿 娴 中国科学博猫1分彩软件下载馆 
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中文摘要:
      洋务运动“中学为体,西学为用”的思想在甲午中日战争中遭到全面失败,科学作为思想革新的武 器开始成为知识阶层的普遍共识。严复通过翻译《天演论》将进化论思想传播至中国,激发起改良派对科学 方法的探究。“科学方法”即“归纳法”和“演绎法”进入梁启超的视野,让他意识到科学方法所蕴含的实证 主义精神和怀疑精神是西方现代性启蒙的根源,丰富了他的“新民”理论。科学一元论的思想和科学功利思 想开始萌芽。而鲁迅一面深受梁启超新民思想的影响,一面亲身投入科学实践活动,却得出与梁启超不同的 科学价值观,他认为西方现代性是科学与艺术两者共同作用的结果,并且国民性改造的目的是培养独立自主、 思想自由的个体,人是一切行动的目的,而“立人”的思想直接将日后的新文化运动推向深入。本文力求通 过分析梁启超和鲁迅的若干科学论文,梳理清末时期,西方科学方法进入中国思想界视域的复杂过程,以及 它如何给酝酿中的新文化运动做好思想上的准备。
英文摘要:
      The philosophy“strengthening China by traditional Chinese values and modern western science and technology”initiated during Westernization movement suffered a complete failure in the Sino-Japanese War during 1894—1895. Science,as a weapon of ideological innovation,was beginning to gain the general consensus by the intellectual class. Yan Fu,by translating Evolution and Ethics into Chinese,inspired the study of scientific methods. Under the enlightenment of“Scientific method”, “induction”and“deductive method”,Liang Qichao began to be aware that the spirit of positivism and skepticism found its root in western modernity,which enriched the theory of his“New-human”. The idea of scientific monism and the idea of scientific utilitarianism began to sprout. While Lu Xun was deeply influenced by Liang Qichao’s New-human’s thoughts,he devoted himself to scientific practice,helping him incubate scientific values different from Liang Qichao’s. He believed that the western modernity was the birth of the combination of science and art,and the purpose of the remoulding of National Character was to cultivate an independent individual embracing the freedom of thought,which was called“Li Ren”theory. The thought of“Li Ren”directly pushed the New Culture Movement far and deep. This paper focuses on the complex process of how the western scientific method was introduced in China during the late Qing Dynasty by Liang Qichao and Lu Xun’s scientific papers,and how the western scientific method prepared ideas for the New Culture Movement.
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